Mondlane, Eduardo Chivambo
Mozambican anticolonial leader
Eduardo Mondlane established the freedom movement known as FRELIMO that eventually won MOZAMBIQUE's independence from Portugal. Educated in South Africa, Portugal, and the United States, Mondlane became heavily involved with the movement for Mozambican independence. He concluded that Portugal's inflexible attitude probably meant that war was inevitable for Mozambique. However, he was determined to avoid devastating the country in the process.
After founding FRELIMO in 1962, Mondlane oversaw the expansion of military action against the colonial government. In 1969 he was killed by a package bomb sent from either a Portuguese or South African source. Mondlane is remembered as one of the founders of an independent Africa. (See also Colonialism in Africa; Independence Movements; Machel, Samora Moises.)